B

Back

July 21, 2012

See also: Trick Play

CIMM DEFINITION: Returns viewer to the previous screen.  As distinguished from “Last” – primarily a Remote Control function – which returns the viewer to the last channel viewed.  Usage of the term “Last” and its function varies across operators and platforms.

Back Channel

July 21, 2012

See also Back Haul and Back Path

CIMM DEFINITION: A return path connection that can be used by a Set-Top Box to communicate with the cable headend; Can be used to communicate to cable headend or the service provider. It applies to asymmetric data connections and is the slower of the two data paths in the connection.

2: “A communication channel that can be used by a Set-Top Box to communicate with the cable headend or other devices. Also known as Back Haul. A term used to describe the technology which provides the infrastructure for electronic traffic traveling from the subscriber to the platform company.” (Source: Nielsen)

3: “Term commonly used to describe the action of sending data back to a host server over a phone wire or cable pipe.” (Source: itvt.com/glossary)

NOTE – Many other types of homes (with the exception of digital Set-Top Box homes) do not have backchannels. Satellite homes receive back signals from landline phone lines which vary from home to home.

NOTE – Available bandwidth on the return path is severely limited within the existing digital cable environment, and exceeding bandwidth limits can be catastrophic —i.e., STB reboots, network downtime. Motorola systems are limited to a raw bitrate of 256 Kbps per node (i.e., 500 to 1500 STBs), much of which is consumed by the system itself, VOD session management, IPG interaction, interactive application processing, etc.,  Also, communication on this return path is limited to UDP, which does not guarantee delivery of information from STB to the back-end, and generates additional bandwidth usage by applications to confirm delivery and resend lost data. Cisco systems provide slightly more return path bandwidth and support TCP (i.e., guaranteed delivery of data), but typically reserve more return path bandwidth for system and resident application (e.g., SARA) use. Collecting STB measurement data with low Latency is a complex task, especially for census data. Load on the back channel is an issue in downloading STB data. (Source: FourthWall Media)

NOTE – From Mediapost TV Board article by Weisler, Feb09- A way to get data back to the operator. Cable systems have a back channel but satellite operators can only send data back via the phone lines. Since not all satellite Set-Top Boxes  connect to phone lines, this must be taken into account when receiving Set-Top Box data from satellite homes. Kantar Media Audiences says there is no significant difference in the satellite homes with and without the back channel. Rentrak says boxes are connected in different ways – some need to back channel to get scheduling data, others connect via broadband. It all varies by operator. More examination may be in order.

 

Back Haul

July 21, 2012

See also: Back Channel, Back Path

CIMM DEFINITION: Another term for Back Channel.

Back Path

July 21, 2012

See also: Back Haul, Back Path

CIMM DEFINITION: Another term for Back Channel.

Backbone

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: High-volume, central, generally ―long-haul‖ portion of a data network. (Source: IAB)

Bandwidth

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: In computer networks, bandwidth is often used as a synonym for data transfer rate – the amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period (usually a second). Usually expressed in bits (of data) per second (bps). A link with a high bandwidth is one that may be able to carry enough information to sustain the succession of images in a video presentation. In electronic communication, bandwidth is the width of the range (or band) of frequencies that an electronic signal uses on a given transmission medium. Here bandwidth is expressed in terms of the difference between the highest-frequency signal component and the lowest-frequency signal component. Since the frequency of a signal is measured in hertz (the number of cycles of change per second), a given bandwidth is the difference in hertz between the highest frequency the signal uses and the lowest frequency it uses. (Source: SearchEnterpriseWAN.com)

2: The transmission rate of a communications line or system, expressed as kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps) for digital systems; the amount of data that can be transmitted over communications lines in a given time. (Source: IAB)

NOTE – Bandwidth impacts Latency and therefore Dwell Time measurement. Restricting or price tiering of bandwidth size impacts measurement too.

NOTE – It should be remembered that a real communications path usually consists of a succession of links, each with its own bandwidth. If one of these is much slower than the rest, it is said to be a bandwidth bottleneck.

NOTE – Key constraint determining the amount and type of addressable, interactive applications, which can be run at any one time. (Source: Visible World)

NOTE – In the digital cable environment there are multiple data paths, each with distinct characteristics. Most obvious is the downstream video path, carrying large volumes of MPEG-2 video data from cable headends to STBs. Non-video data (e.g., EBIF applications) may be embedded within the MPEG-2 data stream at any point in the delivery of video from programmer to headend, and retrieved on the STB. This path provides the most downstream bandwidth, but requires the STB to tune to a specific channel to access it. A second downstream data path is the Out-of-band network, which provides less downstream IP network bandwidth than the video path, but does not require channel tuning, and is thus always available. The out-of-band network also provides a small amount of upstream IP bandwidth (see Back Channel, Return Path). (Source: FourthWall Media)

Bandwidth Allocation

July 21, 2012

See also: Bandwidth Cap, Spectrum

CIMM DEFINITION: How frequencies are allocated by bands or within a spectrum and assigned to different applications, content providers, data and information flows.

CIMM DEFINITION: Limits the transfer of a specified amount of data over a period of time. A cap is sometimes applied by a content delivery channel such as an internet service provider to moderate the content flow so it does not become over-loaded by a few heavier users.

NOTE – Implementation of a bandwidth cap is sometimes termed a Fair Access Policy or Usage-Based Billing. (Source: www.Wikipedia.org)

Bandwidth Contention

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A bottleneck that occurs when two or more files are simultaneously transmitted over a single data line. Unless the system is able to prioritize among the files, the effect is to slow delivery of each. (Source: IAB)

 

Bandwidth Optimization

July 21, 2012

See also: QAM, Switched Digital Video

CIMM DEFINITION: Managing the trade-off between the cost and the efficiency of delivering video.

NOTE – Bandwidth is one of the primary cost concerns cable and telecommunications operators deal with when considering new consumer or advertising applications. Bandwidth optimization solutions have been developed to accommodate the growth in consumer applications including HD video and higher broadband speeds and advertiser applications such as household addressable TV advertising. (Source: Visible World)

Banners

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A type of advertising format for the internet (which is now being called display advertising) and addressable television offering the viewer an opportunity to clickthrough the banner to receive more information from the advertiser.

2: Advertisements that link to an advertiser’s site. (Source: Nielsen)

3: A type of EBIF interactive television application available from FourthWall Media’s AdWidgets System. (Source: FourthWall Media)

4: A graphic advertising image displayed on a Web page. (Source: IAB)

Bar Codes

July 21, 2012

See also: QR Codes, Google Goggles

CIMM DEFINITION: The printed code used for recognition by a bar code scanner (bar code reader). The “bar” in bar code comes from the ubiquitous, one-dimensional (1D) UPC bar code found on countless product packages. Several two-dimensional (2D) bar codes are also in wide use, but they are not really as bar-like as the UPC. The 2D codes are scanned horizontally and vertically and hold considerably more data. (Source: www.pcmag.com)

 

Barker

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A promotional loop video played within a window in the On-Demand User Interface.

Barter

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: The exchange of goods and services without the use of cash. The value of the barter is the dollar value of the goods and services being exchanged for advertising. This is a recognized form of revenue under GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). (Source: IAB)

Beacon

July 21, 2012

See: Web Beacon, Tag, Page Tag, Web Bug

CIMM DEFINITION: Used in combination with cookies, it is an often-transparent graphic image, usually no larger than 1 pixel x 1 pixel that is placed on a Web site or in an e-mail that is used to monitor the behavior of the user visiting the Web site or sending the e-mail. (Source: www.Webopedia.com)

 

 

Behavioral Targeting

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A technique used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual‘s web browsing behavior such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made to select which advertisements to be displayed to that individual. Practitioners believe this helps them deliver their online advertisements to the users who are most likely to be influenced by them. (Source: IAB)

Benchmark Ratings

July 21, 2012

See also: Rating

CIMM DEFINITION: A rating that serves as a measurement point to which other ratings are compared.

NOTE  – While needed in the short term to help best aggregate different data streams, who is to set the standard?

 

Beta

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A test version of a product, such as a Web site or software, prior to final release. (Source: IAB)

 

Big Data

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINTION: Data sets so large – in volume, velocity and variety – that they are impossible to manage with conventional database tools. (Source: CIO Magazine)

 

Billboards

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: In Set-Top Box parlance it is an interactive overlay that enables viewers to clickthrough and receive more information about a product or advertiser.

Bit Cap

July 21, 2012

See: Bandwidth Cap

CIMM DEFINITION: An inter-changeable term with Bandwidth Cap.

Bit Rate Reduction

July 21, 2012

See also: Digital Compression, Compression, Source Coding, Data Compression

CIMM DEFINTION: Also known as Data Compression

 

Bitrate

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: The rate at which bits of information or data is transferred from one location to another expressed as the amount of data transferred in bits per second, kilobits per second or megabits per second

2: A measure of bandwidth which indicates how fast data is traveling from one place to another on a computer network. Bit rate is usually expressed in kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps). (Source: IAB)

Blind Match

July 21, 2012

See also: Anonymization

CIMM DEFINITION: A form of viewer / consumer de-identification which prevents identifying data with specific homes or viewers.

2: “Blind Matching also refers to the use of a 3rd party matching data while preserving anonymity by using a hash ID or an encrypted key.” (Source: TIVO).

 

Blog

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: Generic name for any Website featuring regular posts arranged chronologically, typically inviting public comments from readers. Blog postings are generally short and informal, and blog software is generally free and very easy for individual users, making it a popular tool for online diaries as well as more professional publications. (Source: IAB)

CIMM DEFINITION: This is a spot that appears during linear TV to promote ON-DEMAND/VOD content. (Source: IAB)

Bonus impressions

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order. (Source: IAB)

Bookmark

July 21, 2012

See also: Direct Traffic

CIMM DEFINITION: Saves programming, ads or other content to a list for later recall and viewing.

Bot

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: Software that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a bot is endowed with the capability to react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of bots are agents and spiders. Bots are used by companies like search engines to discover Web sites for indexing. It is short for robot. (Source: IAB)

 

 

Bounce

July 21, 2012

See also: Email Bounce

CIMM DEFINITION: Content, often an email that is automatically returned to the sender because it cannot be delivered to the intended recipient.

 

Bound Application

July 21, 2012

See also: Unbound Application

CIMM DEFINITION: Applications that require extensive memory use and are therefore regulated by the computer processor. Bottlenecks can be ascertained and speed time can be theoretically improved.

2: An EBIF application that’s transmitted to the Set-Top Box  for execution along with the video programming. It is typically embedded as private data in the MPEG-2 video stream with signaling conforming to CableLabs’ EBIF standards. (Source: FourthWall Media)

3: Applications (OCAP and MHP usually) which are associated with a particular TV channel (service). When the viewer changes channel, the application bound to the previous channel is terminated.  (Source: Unisoft)

Box On / Set Off

July 21, 2012

See also: STB on / TV off

CIMM DEFINITION: Another term for Set-Top Box On / TV Off (SOSO).

 

Boxee

July 21, 2012

See also: Social Media Center

CIMM DEFINITION: A type of Social Media Center. Boxee, still in the beta phase as of early 2010, is a cross platform freeware social media center that has HD capabilities, large screen (10-foot user interface) and interactivity / social networking features.

Boxes Using EBIF

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: Set- Top Boxes that are EBIF enabled and can present Enhanced TV applications and interactive advertising. (Source: Definition currently under review by CableLabs)

2: Percentage of Advanced or Legacy Set-Top Boxes  executing an EBIF user agent software supporting interactivity. (Source: FourthWall Media)

BPS abbr Bits Per Second

July 21, 2012

See also: Bitrate, Kilobits Per Second, Megabits Per Second

CIMM DEFINITION: A common measure of data speed. The rate at which data or other content is transferred by a modem (for example) or other transmission carriers.

Brain Synchronization

July 21, 2012

See also: Synchronization

CIMM DEFINITION: Brain synchronization or “Neuronal synchrony” occurs when neurons from different areas of the brain fire at precisely the same time. These “assemblies” of neurons amplify to a higher frequency. Academic tests indicate that greater attention occurs when the brain is in this synchronized state. (Source: SyncSense.com)

 

Brand Awareness

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: Research studies can associate ad effectiveness to measure the impact of online advertising on key branding metrics. (Source: IAB)

Branded Content

July 21, 2012

See also: Sponsorship

CIMM DEFINITION: A form of marketing or advertising that blurs the conventional distinctions between what constitutes an advertising message and what is considered content – whether for entertainment or informational purposes.

Brands

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A marketing term to indicate the product or service “essence”, market position, competitive profile and/or personality in the mind of the consumer.

2: Also used to refer to advertisers. (Source: TIVO)

Broadband

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A transmission medium that allows transmission of voice, data, and video simultaneously at rates of 1.544Mbps or higher. Broadband transmission media generally can carry multiple channels—each at a different frequency or specific time slot. (Source: CableLabs)

2: Broadband is essentially a signaling method and a form of distribution.  With the internet, broadband enables a faster connection and a “high data rate internet access” vs. dial-up connection.

3: Broadband video is used to refer to systems such as cable television – Digital cable, Telcos and internet. Satellites are not broadband.

4: An Internet connection that delivers a relatively high bit rate – any bit rate at or above 256 Kbps. Cable modems and DSL all offer broadband connections. (Source: IAB)

 

CIMM DEFINITION: TV-like advertisements that may appear as in-page video commercials or before, during, and/or after a variety of content in a player environment including but not limited to, streaming video, animation, gaming, and music video content. Broadband video commercials may appear in live, archived, and downloadable streaming content. (Source: IAB)

Broadcast

July 21, 2012

See also: Broadcast Network

CIMM DEFINITION: Network, as opposed to Cable, Broadcast is a legacy content distribution business that distributes via a collection of affiliated local stations as well as those television stations that are owned and operated by the Broadcast entity.

2: A broadcast is a service that is delivered to all customers. Each customer may select a particular broadcast channel out of many. (Source: CableLabs)

Broadcast Flag

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: Indicators on a stream of data that allows, prevents or places restrictions on the recording of the content. Such restrictions can include limits on number of copies made, inability to save or diminished quality of video should it be recorded. (Source:  Wikipedia)

2: A set of status bits sent in the data stream of a digital television program indicating whether or not the data stream can be recorded or if there are any restrictions on recorded content. (Source: Nielsen)

Broadcast Network

July 21, 2012

See also: Broadcast

CIMM DEFINITION: A broadcast network is an entity such as a corporation, that provides live or recorded video content, such as series, movies, newscasts, sports, and public affairs programs for transmission to a owned station group or affiliated local stations.

Broadcast TV Set-Top Box

July 21, 2012

See also: Set-Top Box, Thin Boxes

CIMM DEFINITION: Also known as a Thin Box.  A Set-Top Box that only delivers data signals to the home and does not have the capability to receive data back from the home, (no backchannel or return path) although this box might have some interface ports, some memory and some processing power.

2: Thin clients or boxes also refer to units that may have a return path but no tuner and utilize tuners from another STB.  In multi-room solutions, broadcast STBs may use tuners or streams from other STBs. (Source: TIVO)

3: A box with no backchannel (return path). Might come with interface ports, some memory and some processing power. (Source: itvdictionary.com)

Broadcasting Day

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: The official start time and end time of a complete 24 programming period. For Nielsen, Rentrak and TRA it is 6am to 6am and for Direct TV it is 3am to 3am so both cross standard day changes of 12 midnight and actually include time portions of two different days.

2: Day the program or spot aired. (Source: TIVO)

3: Nielsen Broadcasting Day is 6a – 6a

4: Direct TV Broadcasting Day is 3a – 3a

5: TIVO reports on all program activity between 5AM and 1AM (next day). Broadcast day starts at 5:00AM and ends at 4:59AM.

6: Data received from TIVO is never cut off. Data received from cable are cut off once per day at 2am and uploaded onto TRA servers.

7: FourthWall Media’s broadcast day is configurable, independent of the data collection period. (Source: FourthWall Media)

NOTE – Without standardization of terms, performance by day will vary across processor companies. Same issue for week start days – Sunday or Monday?

Browser

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A software program that can request, download, cache and display documents available on the World Wide Web. (Source: IAB)

Browser Sniffer

July 21, 2012

See also: Sniffer

CIMM DEFINITION: Software within the website and web applications that determines which web browser the visitor is using in order to be able to deliver compatible content to that specific browser so that content displays correctly, for example.

See also: Network Switching Substation

CIMM DEFINITION: A fixed station in a cellular wireless network, used for communicating with mobile terminals (phones). It is what links mobile phones to a wireless carrier’s network. A base station provides local coverage (an area where mobile phones will work) for a wireless network. The area of coverage may be many miles or just a few city blocks. The coverage can be in all directions, or the antennas may be aimed only in one direction. (Source: www.phonescoop.com)

2: In the computer world, refers to the wireless access point for computers with wireless cards. It is a router that communicates with devices based on the Wi-Fi standard. (Source: www.Techterms.com)

CIMM DEFINITION: Businesses whose primary customers are other businesses. (Source: IAB)

 

CIMM DEFINITION: Businesses whose primary customers are consumers  (Source: IAB)

CIMM DEFINITION: The group that sets a range of television standards for transmission. Metrics created by this group are considered the US standard.

Buffer

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: To guarantee continuous and fluid playback without any spurts, the data stream or video may be received a few seconds before it is viewable by the end-user. This smoothes out the fluctuations of the data stream for a better viewing experience.

2: The buffer is used to store the stream as it comes in.  It is placed in an area of memory and then the playout is performed from that memory as opposed to going directly to the output port.  Buffers are used by Internet video providers to gather enough data ahead of time so that there is little jitter or delay in the signal.  Buffers are also used for writing the video to a DVR for delayed playback within a single session. (Source: Invidi)

3: Buffer is also used to refer to a cache of live television where viewers can rewind.  For DVRs, this buffer or cache can be 30 minutes or adjustable.  Viewers can view this content without having recorded it.  (Source: TIVO)

NOTE – Buffer is an issue for measurement if it occurs as a “live event”, that is as a non-DVR non-“recorded” playback where there may or may not be ad skipping.

Buffering

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: When a streaming media player temporarily stores portions of a streaming media (e.g., audio or video) file on a client PC until there is enough information for the stream to begin playing. (Source: IAB)

Bugs

July 21, 2012

See also: Overlays

CIMM DEFINITION: Usually static, bugs are sight line, extraneous informational elements on a television screen that could also be interactive links to the internet.

2: Also used to refer to technical issues, usually associated with software development. (Source: TIVO)

Bulk Content

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A large amount of entertainment of informational content gathered from different locations and from remote sites and servers.

Bulk E-mail Folder

July 21, 2012

See Junk E-mail Folder, Spam

CIMM DEFINITION: A specific location where unsolicited and unwanted emailed, often considered spam mail, are funneled upon delivery to an email address.

 

Bulk Upload

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: The ability to upload and consolidate vast amounts of content, often in large files, from different servers and sites in an accurate and efficient manner.

Bundling

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: Joining a collection of services such as telephone and cable TV and internet together for the purpose of selling them as a single package and transmitting them over a single communications system.

NOTE – This may not be within a single communication system.  Verizon bundles DirecTV in areas where there is not FiOS. (Source: Invidi)

See also: Homes Using Television

CIMM DEFINITION: Percent of Set-Top Boxes  turned on to a program, time period, daypart or area out of all the Set-Top Boxes  in that universe. (Source: TIVO)

 

See also: Time Shifted HUT

CIMM DEFINITION: Percentage of Set-Top Boxes  using television including any trick play viewing, specifically playback, whether based on time of taping or time or view. (Source: TIVO)

 

Button

July 21, 2012

CIMM DEFINITION: A clickable graphic that contains certain functionality, such as taking one someplace or executing a program. These can also be ads. (Source: IAB)

 

Buy

July 21, 2012

See also: Order

CIMM DEFINITION: Reserved for future potential e-commerce use in On-Demand (e.g., purchase DVD or soundtrack to movie just viewed).

See also: Bring Your Own Technology

CIMM DEFINITION: Describes the recent trend of employees bringing personally-owned mobile devices to their place of work, and using those devices to access privileged company resources such as email, file servers, and databases. (Source: www.wikipedia.org)

 

See also: Bring Your Own Device

CIMM DEFINITION: Similar to Bring Your Own Device, Bring Your Own Technology (BYOT), is a broader description of bringing your own personal technological devices to the workplace, which not only covers the hardware device(s), but also the software used on the device (e.g. web browser, media player, antivirus, word processor)